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The ordinary surgical act is tooth extraction. That act is is more and more unusual because of the progress of different care techniques.
Yet, when endodontic treatment failed we may act on the root by surgical way. We try to save the tooth.
This is the apicoectomy.
When periodontal troubles exist (bone, gum) we can improve surgically the bone and gum characteristics(length, width, morphology). We may use autogenous gingival graft or bone filling.
When tooth is too much movable or too much spoilt or in case of fractured root extraction is still necessary.